Protectors should be mandatory where there is a reasonable probability of an eye or face injury that can be reduced or prevented with the use of protectors. A hazard assessment should be conducted to decide the risk of exposure in order to select the appropriate protectors needed. The safety officer or other responsible parties should pay attention to the different types of hazards and identify the sources of the hazards as stated below. After evaluating the information gathered, suitable protectors should be selected and used.
Step 2: Selection of Safety Eyewear
2.1 Minimum Requirements Meets International Safety Standards, e.g. ANSI Z87.1-2015/2010, SS473:2011, EN166:2001, GB, JIS, AAS, AS/NZS 1337.6
2.2 Optical Quality
2.3 High Impact Rating 2.3.1 American Standards ANSI/ISEA Z87.1
2.4 Lens Materials
Step 3: Understanding Standard Markings
3.1 ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 Marking Requirements
3.2 ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 Marking Sequence Markings can follow a top to bottom sequence or a left to right sequence. DISCLAIMER: The information below is provided to demonstrate examples of resulting product markings compliant with ANSI/ISEA Z87.1-2015. Such information is not meant to be all-inclusive and is provided for illustrative purposes only.
3.4 Wearers’ comfort & acceptance in accordance with SS473 standards
Lightweight for prolonged wearing and use
Good fitting with temple length adjustment
Good fitting for different nose bridges with temple inclination height adjustment
Eye and bridge sizes suitable for Western or Asian people
Pressure points reduced by soft, tri-flex or dual density anti-slip temples
Well ventilated or with anti-fog features
Polycarbonate lens must have durable anti-scratch and anti-fog coating for clarity
Material should withstand tropical climate, high humidity and temperature
3.5 Additional consideration for goggles in accordance with SS473 standards
Wide vision for panoramic view
Good face sealing for better protection and comfort
Wide headband for increased comfort
Able to wear over prescription spectacles
Choice of lens material such as acetate, propionate or polycarbonate
Marking on Lens
Marking on Frames
High Velocity Impact
New ANSI Z87.1-2015 allows the use of a steel ball of diameter 6mm (0.24”), travelling at 50.9m/s (167 ft/s) or a steel ball with diameter 6.35mm (0.25”) travelling at 45.7m/s (150 ft/s) when conducting the high velocity impact test on the complete devices.
Safety Prescription (SRX) Lens Material Qualification Representative SRX lens must be tested to resist high velocity impact using steel ball of either diameter 6mm and 6.35mm as specified in Section 2.3.1.
Safety Prescription (SRX) Lens Mounting Qualification Complete SRX eyewear with representative test lens and retention system shall be capable of resisting high velocity impact using steel ball of either diameter 6mm and 6.35mm as defined in Section 2.3.1.
Protectors Providing Filtration of Optical Radiation
Special Purpose Filters Special purpose filters, both tinted and extra dark, marked “S”, may or may not comply to requirements for welding, UV and visible light filters, but shall comply with the transmittance requirements for special purpose lenses.
Visible Light Filters Protectors marked L1.3 to L3 must meet transmittance requirements of traffic signal recognition and UV transmittance of ANSI Z80.3-2010, American National Standard for Ophthalmics – Nonprescription Sunglasses and Fashion Eyewear Requirements. While protectors marked L4 to L10 are too dark to be used for driving, they shall meet UV transmittance requirements of ANSI Z80.3-2010.
Transmittance of Non-Lens Components If a spectacle claims to meet the transmittance requirements of welding, UV and infrared filter lenses, the side shields of the spectacles shall be tested to the maximum scale number of the lens with which they will be fitted. Wraparound lenses which have the side protection as part of the lenses will be subjected to the same testing.
Angular Dependence of Luminous Transmittance Requirements for angular dependence of luminous transmittance for welding filters have also been added to address visual effect that welders can find both dangerous and disturbing.
Droplet and Splash, Dust and Fine Dust Hazard
In ANSI Z87.1-2015, the tests for droplet and splash, dust, and fine dust hazards are intended to determine the capability of the protector to keep liquid splashes or sprays, large dust and fine dust particles, from reaching the wearer’s eyes. Eyewear that pass each test are marked additionally with D3, D4, and D5 respectively. (Refer to table 3.5.1)
Important Notes for Safety Prescription (SRX) Eyewear
1. Minimum Lens Thickness of SRX Lens SRX eyewear must be fitted with impact rated SRX lens with a minimum thickness of 2mm (0.08”)
2. SRX Optical Requirements – Refractive Power, Astigmatism, Prism and Prism Imbalance for RX Protectors and Magnifiers SRX lens must be tested according to and comply with the tolerance on refractive power, astigmatism, prism and prism imbalance as stated in ANSI Z80.1-2010, American National Standard for Ophthalmics – Prescription Ophthalmic Lenses Recommendations.
3. SRX Lens Mounting Qualification Complete SRX eyewear with representative test lens and retention system shall be capable of resisting high mass and high velocity impact. A new lens retention test is required of prescription safety laboratories fabricating impact rated SRX eyewear to determine their ability to consistently produce lenses that will be retained in the various frame types they choose to sell. SRX frame manuf
4. SRX Lens Material Qualification Representative SRX lens must be tested to resist high velocity impact using a steel ball of diameter 6mm (0.24”) travelling at 50.9m/s (167 ft/s) or a steel ball with diameter 6.35mm (0.25”) travelling at 45.7m/s (150 ft/s).
5. SRX Lens Carrier (RX Insert)/SRX Eyewear with Lift Fronts The complete device with prescription lenses in +5.0 and -5.0 diopters fitted in the carrier, behind the plano eyewear shall be tested. RX lens carrier used behind plano protectors shall be marked with the manufacturer’s mark or logo but not any other Z87 markings. Complete devices with SRX eyewear and lift fronts shall be tested with the lift front in the “up” position.
6. SRX Side Shield Attachment SRX eyewear must be equipped with side shields that can be securely or permanently attached to pass the side impact test.
ANSI/ISEA Z87.1-2015 Standard
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has approved and issued the new ANSI/ISEA Z87.1-2015 American National Standard for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection (ANSI Z87.1-2015). This standard went into effect May 28, 2015, and updates the 2010 version. While the scope of the standard remains mostly unchanged, there are a number of modifications that have significant impact. The following outlines these changes and how they impact eye protection and the methods companies use to select safety products.
Important Changes ANSI Z87.1-2015 continues to focus on product performance and reflects the need to streamline testing methods to harmonize with global standards to allow new and innovative designs to protect against hazards, meet end-users needs and workplace regulations. This consists of acceptance of protectors known as “magnifiers” and “readers” that have lenses, or portion of lenses that have magnification properties. The new Z87.1-2015 standard fine-tunes the hazard-based structure of choosing protectors, a concept first introduced in 2010. In the revised standard, additional emphasis has been placed on enabling users to select protectors suitable for their working environment and providing end-users with information to facilitate the selection process.
Optical Requirements of Refractive Powers ANSI Z87.1-2015 specifies that the telescope and observer shall be qualified by resolving pattern 40 of the test pattern instead of pattern 20. The revised standard states that the average refractive power of lenses with astigmatism is used instead of each meridian.
Physical Requirements of Drop Ball Impact Resistance ANSI Z87.1-2015 elaborates on the specifications of testing apparatus used in the drop ball test. The projectile will be dropped from a height of 127cm (50”) through a loose fitting guide tube with a smooth internal diameter ending 10cm (4”) above the point of contact. The revised standard eliminates the need to perform drop ball testing for a protector that is first tested to and meet the requirements of impact resistance.
SS473:2011 Singapore Standard
According to clause 5.3 of the SS473: Part 2:2011 Singapore Standard, eye protectors (plano and prescription eye protectors) must comply and be marked in accordance with any of the following standards or their equivalent: ISO, EN (Europe), ANSI (USA), CSA (Canada), AS/NZ (Australia/New Zealand) and JIS (Japan). All WORKSafe® eyewear comply with SS473 as well as ANSI/ISEA Z87.1 standards, and, if indicated, EN166 standards.
Follow these care instructions for long-lasting comfort and protection! 1. To avoid breaking or bending your spectacle frame, handle your glasses with both hands. Pull both ear rails simultaneously when putting on or taking off your glasses. 2. When not in use, store your glasses in a case like the WORKSafe® SRX 3. If you haven’t got a case, be sure to place your WORKSafe® safety eyewear upright, so the lenses don’t get scratched or scuffed. 4. Clean your glasses regularly with microfiber cloths or with WORKSafe® Kleanlens® solution; or by washing them with mild soap and water. 5. Avoid exposing your glasses to extreme temperatures, under direct sunlight, or during your bath. Smoke, heat and steam can damage the lens coating
Overview of Glove Materials
Ideally, the perfect glove should be made of materials that resist all chemicals, provide excellent tactile sensitivity, protect users against all physical hazards with durability. In practice, this is not possible as each material’s characteristics react differently to certain working conditions.
EN 388 Coupe Test Method vs. EN ISO 13997 TDM Cut Test Method
Within the European Union (EU), all PPE must comply with the essential requirements of the PPE 89/686/eec directive.
Your health depends on breathing clean air, but in an industrial environment, breathing (respiratory) hazards may be present.These hazards are often invisible and can cause health problems if you’re exposed to them without personal protection.
PDS International offers employers an effective respiratory protection program meeting the Singapore Standard SS548:2009.
Particulate filters for air-purifying respirators are classified according to filter efficiency. Particulate filter efficiency is measured by the percentage of particulate contaminant removed by the filter. Particulate filters are commonly classified into three classes of efficiency.
For example, in AS/NZS 1715:2009 and BS EN 143:2000, non-powered air-purifying particulate filters are classified into three classes of 80% (P1), 94% (P2), 99.95% (P3) efficiency.
Under the NIOSH 42CFR Part 84, there are nine classes of filters (three series of filters with three levels of filter efficiency).
The filter series are referred to as N, R and P. The three different levels of filter efficiency are 95%, 99% and 99.7%.
N-Series filters – Approved for solid and liquid particulates, excluding oils.
R-Series filters – for both oil and non-oil solid and liquid particulates with a maximum 8 hours or one shift use.Time restrictions when used for oil mist.
P-Series filters – is approved for both oil and non-oil particulates, and can be used longer than an R Series filter.
Types of Respirators
All our respirators comply with Singapore SS548:2009 standards. According to the Singapore SS548:2009 (formerly CP 74), clause 5.3, our “respirators shall satisfy any of the following standards or their equivalent: NIOSH-MSHA (USA), CEN (Europe), AS/NZS (Australia/New Zealand), KOSHA (Korea) and JIS (Japan)”*.
In addition,we provide training and technical assistance concerning the following elements as listed in SS548:2009*:
Selection of suitable types of respirators
Fit-testing and training in conducting of fit-tests
Training users on usage, care and limitations of respirators
Advice and provision of proper signage in hazardous areas
Assistance and training pertaining to proper and regular inspections and maintenance
Flame-Resistant Protection Apparel
WORKSafe® Flame-Resistant (FR) Workwear
Where there are flammable materials being handled, processed, stored or in anyway present in the workplace, hazards such as flash fires and explosions may occur due to accidental ignition of these materials. In various industries such as petrochemical and oil drilling, workers are exposed to risks of fire accidents which may cause severe or even fatal burns. If a flash fire does occur, wearing WORKSafe® FR Workwear would prevent fatal burn injuries by creating a flame-resistant barrier which retards the flames and is self-extinguishing, thereby minimizing burn injuries.
All WORKSafe® FR Workwear are made of only quality FR fabrics and key accessories that are tested to EN ISO 11612 standards. In addition, only nickel-free buttons are used in WORKSafe® FR clothing,together with shorter stitches, double-stitching at all seams and bar-tacking at stress areas for enhanced durability.
When selecting FR Workwear, you should look for:
Excellent fabric integrity – it should not melt and should provide the user with a barrier or insulating layer against exposure to flame
Antistatic properties – the fabric should not act as an ignition source via static electricity
Global safety standards e.g. NFPA 2112:2012, EN ISO 11612:2008 – both the fabric and full garment should be properly tested
Flame-resistant key accessories e.g. threads, zippers,reflective strips, pocket linings
Fit and mobility – FR Workwear should allow for maximum body movement and dissipation of thermal heat in the event of flash fire
Softness and weight – FR Workwear should be soft and lightweight
Moisture absorption – FR Workwear should be highly breathable and designed to help wearers feel cool and dry
Difference between Flame-Resistant and Flame-Retardant Materials: Flame-Resistant: Aramid fibers (aromatic polyamides) that are naturally flame-resistant without any chemical treatment or process. These fibers have slower flaming combustion and self-extinguish when exposed to a flame of short duration during testing. Flame-resistant materials do not melt, drip, burn nor support combustion in air.Its properties cannot be altered through cleaning and it’s generally strongly abrasion-resistant.
Flame-Retardant:Fibers that have undergone a chemical treatment so that the material is rendered flame-resistant.The flame retardancy of the fibers deteriorate over time due to repeated washing and laundering.
The Flame-Resistant Materials we Use: Nomex® III A: A meta-aramid fiber manufactured by DuPont™. It has a blend of 93% NOMEX®, 5% Kevlar®, and 2% P140 (static dissipative fiber). NOMEX® III A, as a fabric, has been tested to NFPA 2112 and NFPA 70E HRC 1 arc rating (USA) as well as EN ISO 11612 (Europe) standards.
There’s only one DuPont™ Nomex® brand fiber. That’s why for over 30 years, industrial workers and the people who protect them have demanded a genuine product. Fires are unpredictable and even a split second can make all the difference. DuPont™ Nomex® brand fabrics and garments are subjected to rigorous testing in a variety of conditions by DuPont™ scientists and engineers who know and support the latest OSHA and NFPA standards; who constantly innovate, finding new ways to help safeguard your workers from fire and electric arc hazards; who are always working to offer solutions that help make protective gear stronger, more durable and safer. Nomex® brand fibers possess inherent flame-resistant qualities that can’t be washed out or worn away, so it lasts. Nomex® brand garments are lightweight and comfortable for every worker. Clothe your crews with the name that means superior protection: DuPont™ Nomex®*.
The Flame-Retardant Materials we Use: Pyrovatex®*: A durable frame-retardant product for cellulosic fibres. Pyrovatex® is a treated fabric that offers the best overall fire protection available for cotton, as proven by comprehensive testing according to international flame-retardant standards. Treated fabrics barely shrink when exposed to heat and fires, thereby ensuring that the skin is not exposed to hazardous conditions. Treated cotton, unlike synthetics, will not melt in the presence of heat from fires. Treated fabrics also offer excellent thermal protection where heat is an added danger.
Key characteristics of Pyrovatex®:
Outstanding durability to wash and wear, which ensures long life of the clothing.
Finishes have negligible influence on fabric colouration and therefore preserve flexibility to meet specific color demands.
Treated fabrics have good compatibility with other treatments, permitting the creation of multifunctional garments
EN ISO 11612
Guidelines to consider before buying FR Workwear
Chemical Protective Apparel
Protective clothing certified to different EN standards and types have different protection properties. It is important to select the appropriate protective clothing depending on the type of risk that you are exposed to ensure maximum protection.
GENERAL SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR PPE REQUIREMENTS*
Selection Guide for the Chemical Protective Clothing under EN Standards
“WHOLE SUIT TEST” Each of the types defines a “whole suit” test – a test on a finished garment to confirm that a coverall is suitable for a task. This generally involves the test subject entering a glass booth and being sprayed with either coloured or dry particles. The type of spray used differs according to the type being tested.The result is either a pass or a fail.
The right protection on the work floor requires more than just a steel toecap.Unsuitable outsole types can lead to electric shocks and cause you to slip and fall.The wrong insoles can cause foot, ankle and lower back pains due to poor fit and lack of support.Long hours of wear lead to warm,wet conditions in the boots, which are ideal for fungus to grow. Industry professionals are fashionable people too, with an eye for aesthetics.That’s why our safety footwear has to look good. And not only that, it also has to give you the protection and comfort that you are after.
The two major categories of work-related injuries are foot injuries from punctures, crushing, sprains, lacerations and the injuries resulting from slips, trips and falls. Identify and assess the relevant workplace hazards and choose your safety footwear wisely.
Some examples of foot hazards includes:
Exposure to chemical splash or spill
Wet and slippery surfaces
Heat and cold
Foot Health Tips
Ensure the right footwear is used for the right job. There are many brands, designs and types of safety footwear available. Ask the manufacturer or supplier to advise on the correct footwear for use.
Good quality, comfortable and well-fitted safety footwear can prevent many ailments, reduce fatigue and keep you fresher and alert longer.
Safety footwear with thick, insulating soles and shock-absorbing materials can alleviate discomfort.
Safety foorwear with wider toecap reduces pressure on toes and improves blood circulation.
Wear good quality work socks that fit well to reduce friction in shoes or boots and change them every day.
Make sure your shoe or boot is the correct size and fits comfortably. Good quality safety footwear should not be uncomfortable if correctly fitted.
Comfortable safety footwear increases productivity and creates a happier workplace.
Be aware of the hazards in your workplace. If you have concerns about foot safety, alert your employer or safety officer.
Report foot problems, however minor (e.g. safety shoes that rub), review the problem and find a suitable solution.
Look at the foot health record of your company – multiple foot complaints may suggest the workplace itself is creating foot problems.
Promote foot health in your workplace.
Do a ‘Foot Risk Assessment’ in the workplace – look for ways to minimise the burden on your employees’ feet. (A podiatrist may be able to assist you with assessing workplace foot risks).
If your employees wear safety shoes, ask yourself. Do we stock an adequate range of safety shoes to suit every staff member? If not, out-sourcing the supply and fit of safety shoes may be more cost-effective.
Allow employees a crossover period when they exchange their old safety shoes for a new pair.
Remember, feet shouldn’t hurt. Sore feet are a sign of a problem.
Visit a podiatrist if you have foot problems.
Contact a podiatrist to give a talk on foot care to employees.
Emphasise to the safety officer or occupational physician that foot complaints should be taken seriously
EUROPEAN SAFETY NORMS EN ISO 20345:2004 (EQUIVALENT TO SS513:Part 1:2013*)
WORKSafe® – Designs for Comfort and Protection
WORKSafe® is renowned for its range of high quality personal protective equipment (PPE) designed to protect industry personnel.WORKSafe® is synonymous with Design, Comfort, Protection and Reliability.Continuous research in design and ergonomics,together with the support from competent manufacturing partners and qualified training facilities guarantee that WORKSafe® products are of superior quality for maximum comfort and protection. Apart from strict internal quality control systems, WORKSafe® products are subjected to stringent third-party tests according to international standards such as American ANSI, European EN or Singapore SS standards or others specific to our wide array of PPEs.We relentlessly upgrade and update our capabilities, human assets and R&D in correspondence with workplace safety regulations to deliver high quality,reliable and affordable systems and solutions to our customers.
WORKSafe® FALL PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS
WORKSafe® aims to protect your employees working at heights or in confined spaces withWORKSafe® Fall Protection Systems and Solutions. WORKSafe® Fall Protection Systems are developed to exceed industry expectations.Made with the best materials,technology and specialist ISO-certified manufacturing facilities,WORKSafe® wants to deliver maximum protection to your employees.When working at heights, trust that you can always FALL BACK on WORKSafe® !
Fall Prevention and Fall Protection Systems
Important Fall Protection System Considerations
Code of Practice/Regulation/Standards – Understand Singapore Code of Practice and relevant standards or respective countries’Federal, State, Local and Provincial regulations and standards pertaining to working safely at height or fall protection before selecting and using the equipment.
Warnings – Always read all instructions and warnings contained on the product, manual and packaging before using any fall protection equipment.
Inspection – All fall protection equipment must be inspected prior to each use.
Training – All workers should be trained by a competent person in the proper use of fall protection equipment before using any fall protection equipment.
Rescue Planning – Minimizing the time between a fall occurrence and medical attention of the worker is vitally important. A thorough rescue program should be established prior to using fall protection equipment.
System Components – Only components that are fully compatible with one another should be used. Fall arrest systems are designed and tested as complete systems and should be used in this way.
What to Do After a Fall – After a fall occurs, all components of the fall arrest system should be removed from service.
Product/System Preferences or Information – If there are any doubts about which fall protection products to use, contact PDS International Pte Ltd or WORKSafe® Distributors for more information.
4 Categories of WORKSafe® Fall Protection
The 4 Key Components of a Personal Fall Arrest System
Anchorage – a fixture or place for the secure attachment of a fall arrest system. A safety harness is able to provide protection from falls only if the harness is attached to a lanyard with shock absorber that is anchored to a secure anchor point or anchor device/connector.
Anchor Point or Anchorage (Also known as a secure tie-off point e.g. structural beam): • Must be accessed to be adequate by a competent person • When accessing existing structural features for use as anchor points, avoid corners or edges that could cut, chafe, or abrade fall protection components. • Wherever possible, the anchor points should be located above the user, this is to ensure that the anchor line or lanyard is taut or has as little slack as possible reducing the free fall distance.
The following area should never be used as anchor points unless the minimum structural requirements have been determined to be safe and approved by a competent person: • Standard Guardrails, Balcony Railings • Ladders/rungs • Scaffolding • Light fixtures • Conduit or plumbing • Ductwork or Pipe Vents • Rebar (except for positioning during formwork) • Roof Stacks, Vents, Fans or Chimney • TV Antennas • Any point which does not meet the structural requirements
Anchorage Devices or Connectors (used to join the connecting device to the anchorage point e.g. webbing strap, steel sling, I-beam clamp). There are basically six types of anchor device (as specified in EN795 and SS570:2011). They are tabulated below for reference:
BodyWear (the personal protective equipment worn by the worker such as a full body harness):It provides a connection point on the worker for the personal fall arrest system.Used as part of a system to protect the worker from falling and to limit the extent of potential injury in case of a fall.
• The only form of body wear accepted is the full body harness • Should be selected based on the work to be conducted and the work environment • Each anchorage point on the harness should have a static resistance > 15kN for 3 minutes • Side and front D-rings are for positioning only
Connecting Devices are critical links which join the body wear to the Anchorage/Anchorage Connectors such as lanyards, energy absorbers, rope grabs, self-retracting lifeline used to connect the worker’s full body harness to the Anchor system. It limits the free fall of the worker and arrests a fall.
Selected based on work to be performed and the work environment
Potential fall distance must be calculated to determine the type of connecting device to be used
In the event of a fall, the worker must be rescued as soon as possible so as to prevent further injury. The immediate rescue of fall victims can prevent onset of further injury such as suspension trauma, which can occur when the victim is left suspended in a harness over a period of time.The retrieval of fall victims or self-rescue is an essential component of any fall protection plan.
All the 4 components when used properly and in conjunction with each other, together form a personal fall arrest system that is essential for maximum protection during work at heights.
Limitations and Hazards of using Fall Arrest Systems
WORKSafe® Fall Arrest Systems should only be used in the event that it is not reasonably practicable to use other risk control measures to prevent falls. Should the user not be trained in the proper usage techniques, he or she may sustain injury during an arrested fall.
Height clearance must be taken into consideration before employing the use of a WORKSafe® Fall Arrest System.The total length of the lanyard, sag in life-line, and the shock-absorbing lanyard may be longer than the height of the fall. For industry professionals working at shorter heights, a short lanyard or a retractable fall arrest block is recommended. However, some hazards might occur during activation of individual fall arrest systems due to a fall. One such occurrence is the swinging motion caused by a pendulum effect of a person falling off the edge
Calculation of Total Fall Clearance Distance
Before using a shock absorbing lanyard or self-retracting lifeline (SRL), it is crucial to calculate fall distances and select the proper equipment so as to meet estimated fall clearance. Failure to do so may result in serious personal injury, paralysis or death.
When using a 6 ft. (1.8m) shock-absorbing lanyard and a full-body harness, add the length of the shock-absorbing lanyard to the maximum elongation of the shock absorber during deceleration (3.5 ft. or 1.1m) to the height of a worker (average 6 ft. or 1.8m).
Then add 3 ft. (1m) as a safety factor.
The total 18.5 ft. (5.6m) is the estimated safe fall clearance distance, the height at which you must attach to an anchorage to minimize the risk of contact with a lower level.
Swing-falls occur when the anchorage point is not directly above the point where a fall occurs.Hence,to minimize swing-falls, user should work directly, if not, as close as possible, below the anchorage point.